By measuring with a spectroscopic Doppler-free technique while focusing on one of these lines, the hyperfine structure of the iodine molecule reveals itself. Iodine-induced hyperthyroidism can also result from high iodine intakes, including when iodine is administered to treat iodine deficiency. Breast J. Updated: September 16, 2020 History of changes to this fact sheet, U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, Strengthening Knowledge and Understanding of Dietary Supplements, My Dietary Supplement and Medicine Record, How To Evaluate Health Information on the Internet, NIH Consortium for Advancing Research on Botanical and Other Natural Products (CARBON) Program, Analytical Methods and Reference Materials (AMRM), Dietary Supplement Ingredient Database (DSID), Computer Access to Research on Dietary Supplements (CARDS) Database, U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), FDA and ODS-NIH Database for the Iodine Content of Common Foods, Health Implications of Perchlorate Ingestion, Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc, Assessment of iodine deficiency disorders and monitoring their elimination. Physical state: The group 17 elements are found in diverse physical states. Roseland J. [, Gowachirapant S, Jaiswal N, Melse-Boonstra A, Galetti V,Stinca S, Mackenzie I, et al. 2020. A few examples are provided below. [4][93][94][75], Natural sources of dietary iodine include seafood, such as fish, seaweeds (such as kelp) and shellfish, dairy products and eggs so long as the animals received enough iodine, and plants grown on iodine-rich soil. Iodine supplementation improved iodine status (median urinary iodine concentration after supplementation was 145 mcg/L) and significantly improved measures of perceptual reasoning and overall cognitive score compared with children taking a placebo. 2004;(2):CD003819. [105] Iodine deficiency is also a problem in certain areas of Europe. Personal Communication. 2010 Feb;24(1):117-132. We encourage you to talk to your healthcare providers (doctor, registered dietitian, pharmacist, etc.) Methods to assess iron and iodine status. USDA, FDA, and ODS-NIH Database for the Iodine Content of Common Foods Release 1.0. [92] The general US population has adequate iodine nutrition,[98][99] with women of childbearing age and pregnant women having a possible mild risk of deficiency. Despite the importance of iodine for proper fetal development, the effects of iodine supplements during pregnancy on infant and child neurodevelopment in particular are inconclusive. 2010 Feb;24(1):29-38. [, Zimmermann MB, Jooste PL, Pandav CS. 1998;37(5):390-396. The iodine content of several kinds of foods representing different product groups available on the Swiss market was analyzed by isotope dilution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry using the enriched long-lived nuclide 129 I. In most people, iodine intakes from foods and supplements are unlikely to exceed the UL [2]. More recent NHANES measurements indicate that urinary iodine levels have stabilized in the general U.S. population. 2007 May;92(5):1673-1677. Spot urine iodine measurements are a useful indicator of iodine status within populations [28,29]. WHO recommendations for these countries also include breastfeeding through 24 months of age, combined with complementary foods fortified with iodine for children between the ages of 7–24 months [7]. According to NHANES 2001–2006 data, pregnant women who consumed no dairy products in the previous 24 hours had a median urinary iodine concentration of only 100 mcg/L, compared with 163 mcg/L among consumers of dairy [37]. [68] These are the minerals that occur as trace impurities in the caliche, found in Chile, whose main product is sodium nitrate. RULES OF THIS PAGE: 1. Dietary iodine in pregnant women from the Boston, Massachusetts area. During 2007–2008, NHANES participants aged 6 years and older had a median urinary iodine concentration of 164 mcg/L [35]. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) has set a Recommended exposure limit (REL) of 0.1 ppm (1 mg/m3) during an 8-hour workday. 2009 Feb;89(2):668S-672S. Lancet 2013;382:331-7. Such reactions have led to the misconception (widely held, even among physicians) that some people are allergic to iodine itself; even allergies to iodine-rich seafood have been so construed. However, very low iodine intakes can reduce thyroid hormone production even in the presence of elevated TSH levels. [, Levie D, Korevaar TIM, Bath SC, Murcia M, Dineva M, Llop S, Espada M, van Herwaarden AE, de Rijke YB, Ibarluzea JM, Sunyer J, Tiemeier H, Rayman MP, Guxens M, Peeters RP. What does it even do? Potassium-sparing diuretics Pregnant women require more iodine than any other group of people. Nutrition. Although the results of these studies are promising, more research is needed to clarify iodine’s role in fibrocystic breast disease. Many dietary supplements that contain iodine are listed in the Dietary Supplement Label Database from the National Institutes of Health [20]. If they do use iodized salt, they must list the salt as iodized in the ingredient list on the food label [9]. At levels of 2 ppm, iodine is immediately dangerous to life and health. Typically, TSH secretion increases when iodine intake falls below about 100 mcg/day [5]. In areas where iodide prophylaxis was not used, such as Belarus and Ukraine, where many children were mildly iodine-deficient, the incidence of thyroid cancer sharply increased among children and adolescents [77]. Can J Surg. However, most salt intake in the United States comes from processed foods, and food manufacturers almost always use non-iodized salt in these foods. 2008 Jun;13(2):116-127. [79] Its specific mode of action is unknown. J Nutr. This is why many people around the world are at risk of developing a deficiency . [84] Organoiodine compounds are used with intravenous injection as X-ray radiocontrast agents. Iodine deficiency in children and adolescents is often associated with goiter. Intake recommendations for iodine and other nutrients are provided in the Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) developed by the Food and Nutrition Board (FNB) at the Institute of Medicine of the National Academies (formerly National Academy of Sciences) [2]. The United States, Canada, and dozens of other countries have salt-iodization programs [3,16,17]. [110], Elemental iodine is also a skin irritant. If a person’s iodine intake falls below approximately 10–20 mcg/day, hypothyroidism occurs [1], a condition that is frequently accompanied by goiter. Women who restrict their dietary salt intake also have lower urinary iodine concentrations and might be more likely to be iodine deficient than women who don’t restrict salt intake [39]. Silver iodide is a major ingredient to traditional photographic film. Am J Clin Nutr. The difference in melting point between each successive group 17 element is about 110°C. Cases of acute iodine poisoning are rare and are usually caused by doses of many grams. Guidance. Iodine replacement in fibrocystic disease of the breast. [, Angermayr L, Clar C. Iodine supplementation for preventing iodine deficiency disorders in children. Iodine is an essential component of the thyroid hormones thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3). [, Council on Environmental Health, Rogan WJ, Paulson JA, Baum C, Brock-Utne AC, Brumberg HL, et al. ; Lathrop, K.A. We are a committee of experts in thyroid, nutrition and public health. Titanium, zirconium, hafnium, and thorium are purified by the van Arkel process, which involves the reversible formation of the tetraiodides of these elements. 2011 Feb 16. The use of iodized salt is the most widely used strategy to control iodine deficiency. Iodine nutrition in weaning infants in the United States. The hydrogen iodide (HI) is reacted with chlorine to precipitate the iodine. For example, an analysis of 44 samples of nonfat milk found a range of 38 to 159 mcg per cup (with an average of 85 mcg/cup used for Table 2) [8]. [116][115] As with all medications, the patient's allergy history should be questioned and consulted before any containing iodine are administered. Product labels will indicate if the salt is “iodized” or provides iodide. The FNB has established iodine ULs for food and supplement intakes (Table 3). (Lanthanum and the other lanthanides, as well as tungsten with Z = 74, are used by a few microorganisms. Dineva M, Fishpool H, Rayman MP, Mendis J, Bath SC. [4] The higher recommended daily allowance levels of iodine seem necessary for optimal function of a number of body systems, including lactation, gastric mucosa, salivary glands, brain cells, choroid plexus, thymus, and arterial walls. It is often used as a sensitive spot test for ammonia. Research suggests that infants are more sensitive to the effects of iodine deficiency than other age groups, as indicated by changes in their TSH and T4 levels in response to even mild iodine deficiency [53]. 2017 guidelines of the American Thyroid Association for the diagnosis and management of thyroid disease during pregnancy and the postpartum. 2009 Jun;89(6):2052S-2069S. These values have essentially remained unchanged in the last three NHANES surveys, indicating that the dietary iodine intake of the general U.S. population has remained stable since 2000 [35]. Thanks to a more national food supply, iodized salt, and other factors, overt iodine deficiency is now uncommon in North America. USDA-FDA-ODS database for the iodine content of common foods (release one). A review of iodine toxicity reports. Fifteen to 20 mg of iodine is concentrated in thyroid tissue and hormones, but 70% of all iodine in the body is found in other tissues, including mammary glands, eyes, gastric mucosa, fetal thymus, cerebro-spinal fluid and choroid plexus, arterial walls, the cervix, and salivary glands. iodine key end-use sectors include industrial applications, health, animal feed, biocides Chile and Japan are the two main iodine producers – together they account for 92% of global total; Chile is also the main exporter to the world market Among women of reproductive age, the median urinary iodine concentration in NHANES 2007–2014 was 119 mcg/L [36]. Don’t let it affect you! Supplements containing kelp, a seaweed that contains iodine, are also available. In a 2009 randomized, placebo-controlled study, 184 children aged 10–13 years in New Zealand with a median urinary iodine concentration of 63 mcg/L received iodine supplements (150 mcg/day) or placebo for 28 weeks [72]. [, Murray CW, Egan SK, Kim H, Beru N, Bolger PM. These findings suggest that taking higher doses of supplemental iodine during pregnancy could induce thyroid dysfunction in some women and underscore the need for additional research into the effects on maternal thyroid function of iodine supplementation during pregnancy. J Am Diet Assoc. The effect of iodine supplementation in pregnancy on early childhood neurodevelopment and clinical outcomes: Results of an aborted randomised placebo-controlled trial. *DV = Daily Value. It commonly affects women of reproductive age, but it can also occur during menopause, especially in women taking estrogens [73]. 8CaCrO4. Some people, such as those with autoimmune thyroid disease and iodine deficiency, may experience adverse effects with iodine intakes considered safe for the general population [2,5]. Equations for the triiodomethane (iodoform) reaction. In the pilot episode of Breaking Bad, a container of iodine is visible when Walter White first synthesizes methamphetamine through the Nagai route, by using red phosphorus and iodine to reduce pseudoephedrine. [, Pennington JA, Young BE, Wilson DB. This article is about the chemical element. Median urinary iodine concentrations for pregnant women participating in NHANES surveys were 181 mcg/L in 2003–2004, 153 mcg/L in 2001–2006, 125 mcg/L in 2005–2008, and 144 mcg/L in 2007–2014 [31,35-37]. [85], Inorganic iodides find specialised uses. [104] Iodine deficiency is the leading cause of preventable intellectual disability, a result that occurs primarily when babies or small children are rendered hypothyroidic by a lack of the element. Int J Dermatol. The ULs do not apply to individuals receiving iodine for medical treatment, but such individuals should be under the care of a physician [2]. Dietary supplements containing only iodine are also available, and many contain high doses, sometimes above the UL [20]. Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA): Average daily level of intake sufficient to meet the nutrient requirements of nearly all (97%–98%) healthy individuals; often used to plan nutritionally adequate diets for individuals. Although severe iodine deficiency disorders are uncommon in the United States, mild-to-moderate iodine insufficiency during pregnancy may subtly affect fetal development [4,54-58]. Ingestion of this large dose of non-radioactive iodine minimises the uptake of radioactive iodine by the thyroid gland.[83]. [, WHO Secretariat, Andersson M, de Benoist B, Delange F, Zupan J. Overall, it appears that the general U.S. population has adequate iodine intake but that some pregnant women may be at risk for iodine deficiency. [95][96] Iodised salt is fortified with iodine in the form of sodium iodide. [, Gordon RC, Rose MC, Skeaff SA, Gray AR, Morgan KM, Ruffman T. Iodine supplementation improves cognition in mildly iodine-deficient children. [100] The adult UL in Japan was last revised to 3,000 µg/day in 2015. People who do not use iodized salt ... Foods in nutrient-dense forms contain essential vitamins and minerals and also dietary fiber and other naturally occurring substances that may have positive health effects. 3. Language delay and poorer school performance in children of mothers with inadequate iodine intake in pregnancy: Results from follow-up at 8 years in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study. Pharmaceuticals are poisons and are not tolerated as discussion in group. However, multiple 24-hour urinary iodine or multiple spot urine measurements are more accurate for individuals [4,30]. Am J Hypertens. Holleman, A. F.; Wiberg, E. "Inorganic Chemistry" Academic Press: San Diego, 2001. In the United States, salt manufacturers have been adding iodine to table salt since the 1920s, although this practice is still voluntary [18]. Also, recall that Iodine has 7 valence electrons, and wants to obtain 1 more electron to achieve a full octet. 1989 May;89(5):659-664. )[87][88] It is required for the synthesis of the growth-regulating thyroid hormones thyroxine and triiodothyronine (T4 and T3 respectively, named after their number of iodine atoms). DRI is the general term for a set of reference values used for planning and assessing nutrient intakes of healthy people. For this reason, people at risk of exposure to environmental radioactive iodine (iodine-131) in fallout may be instructed to take non-radioactive potassium iodide tablets. Anti-thyroid medications Considerable variations in levels of iodine between single foodstuffs within food groups were found, which also applied for levels in different food groups. ACE inhibitors, such as benazepril (Lotensin®), lisinopril (Prinivil® and Zestril®), and fosinopril (Monopril®), are used primarily to treat high blood pressure. These issues are of concern primarily for people living in areas prone to iodine deficiency [6]. The major form of thyroid hormone in the blood is thyroxine (T4), which has a longer half-life than T3. 1996;66(4):350-362. Hypervalent iodine compounds have received considerable interests from chemists as environmentally friendly oxidants as well as versatile group-transfer reagents for organic synthesis. Moreover, the doses used in these studies (approximately 1,500–6,000 mcg per day) are several times higher than the iodine UL of 1,100 mcg for adults. National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS). In humans, the ratio of T4 to T3 released into the blood is between 14:1 and 20:1. Thyroid function is primarily regulated by thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), also known as thyrotropin. Endocr Rev. In the absence of sufficient iodine, TSH levels remain elevated, leading to goiter, an enlargement of the thyroid gland that reflects the body’s attempt to trap more iodine from the circulation and produce thyroid hormones. UCSF Department of Radiology & Biomedical Imaging, single photon emission computed tomography, elements which occur in significant quantities, Occupational Safety and Health Administration, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, "Atomic weights of the elements 2013 (IUPAC Technical Report)", Magnetic susceptibility of the elements and inorganic compounds, "Découverte d'une substance nouvelle dans le Vareck", "Bernard Courtois (1777–1838) famed for discovering iodine (1811), and his life in Paris from 1798", "Sur un nouvel acide formé avec la substance décourverte par M. Courtois", "Sur la combination de l'iode avec d'oxigène", Liddell–Scott–Jones Greek–English Lexicon, "Sur la nouvelle substance découverte par M. Courtois, dans le sel de Vareck", "Some Experiments and Observations on a New Substance Which Becomes a Violet Coloured Gas by Heat",, Scientific Committee on Problems of the Environment, "Medical isotopes the likely cause of radiation in Ottawa waste", "Isotopic Tracers for Obtaining Hydrologic Parameters", "Investigating leaks in Dams & Reservoirs", "Beiträge zur Kenntniss der flüchtigen organischen Basen", "Ueber eine neue Klasse organischer Radicale", "Sur quelques nouvelles combinaisons organométaliques du magnésium et leur application à des synthèses d'alcools et d'hydrocabures", Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry, "Bond dissociation energies of organic molecules", "Dess–Martin periodinane: 1,1,1-Triacetoxy-1,1-dihydro-1,2-benziodoxol-3(1, "On the Economic Applications of Seaweed", "Chemical and isotopic compositions of brines from dissolved-in-water type natural gas fields in Chiba, Japan", "Precise measurements of hyperfine components in the spectrum of molecular iodine", "Disinfection, sterilization and operation theater guidelines for dermatosurgical practitioners in India", "Antiseptics and disinfectants: activity, action, and resistance",, "Chapter 4: Physical Determinants of Contrast", "Arguments et retour d'expérience sur la distribution d'iode stable autour des centrales nucléaires françaises", "Spatial Distribution of an Uranium-Respiring Betaproteobacterium at the Rifle, CO Field Research Site", "Iodine: deficiency and therapeutic considerations", "Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs): Recommended Intakes for Individuals, Vitamins", "Iodine status of the U.S. population, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2005–2006 and 2007–2008", "History of U.S. iodine fortification and supplementation", "Assessment of Japanese iodine intake based on seaweed consumption in Japan: A literature-based analysis",, "Micronutrient deficiency: iodine deficiency disorders", "Iodine supplementation improves cognition in iodine-deficient schoolchildren in Albania: a randomized, controlled, double-blind study", "Lecture 29: Protein Structure and Denaturation", "CDC - NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards - Iodine", Iodine Allergy and Contrast Administration, "PART 1310 - Section 1310.02 Substances covered",, Biology and pharmacology of chemical elements, Wikipedia pending changes protected pages, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles containing Ancient Greek (to 1453)-language text, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 28 November 2020, at 08:05. The condition seems to occur mainly in people over forty, and the risk appears higher when iodine deficiency is severe and the initial rise in iodine intake is high. United Nations Children's Fund & International Council for the Control of Iodine Deficiency Disorders. [117], Phosphorus can reduce elemental iodine to hydroiodic acid, which is a reagent effective for reducing ephedrine or pseudoephedrine to methamphetamine. Public Health Nutr. In some cases, fortified foods and dietary supplements may be useful in providing one or more nutrients that otherwise may be consumed in less-than-recommended amounts.". Iodine-deficient soils produce crops that have low iodine levels. 2008 Oct 4;372(9645):1251-1262. The use of erythrosine, an iodine-containing food dye commonly used in fruit-flavored breakfast cereals, also decreased during this time [33], though it is unclear to what extent this change actually affected urinary iodine levels because the bioavailability of iodine from erythrosine has been found to be low [34]. Am J Clin Nutr. [, Hollowell JG, Staehling NW, Hannon WH, Flanders DW, Gunter EW, Maberly GF, Braverman LE, Pino S, Miller DT, Garbe PL, DeLozier DM, Jackson RJ. ; Harrison, R.W. J Nutr 2011;141:2049-54. [80], In medicine, a saturated solution of potassium iodide is used to treat acute thyrotoxicosis. [, Charlton KE, Gemming L, Yeatman H, Ma G. Suboptimal iodine status of Australian pregnant women reflects poor knowledge and practices related to iodine nutrition. Make it a staple in your home! Sufficient iodine intake after birth is also important for proper physical and neurological growth and maturation. For example, commercially available seaweeds in whole or sheet form have iodine concentrations ranging from 16 mcg/g to 2,984 mcg/g [15]. [. After 5 months of treatment, women receiving doses of 3,000 or 6,000 mcg iodine had a significant decrease in breast pain, tenderness, and nodularity compared with those receiving placebo or 1,500 mcg iodine. Iodine deficiency. We will take the reagents as being iodine and sodium hydroxide solution. Eating foods rich in iodine ensures the thyroid is able to manage metabolism, detoxification, growth and development. Sources, facts, uses, scarcity (SRI), podcasts, alchemical symbols, videos and images. FDA does not require food labels to list iodine content unless iodine has been added to the food. Elemental iodine is used as a disinfectant either as the element, or as the water-soluble triiodide anion I3− generated in situ by adding iodide to poorly water-soluble elemental iodine (the reverse chemical reaction makes some free elemental iodine available for antisepsis). 1991 Feb;91(2):179-183. Dr. Edward Group Iodine status of pregnant women and women of reproductive age in the United States. Doses of this magnitude should only be used under the guidance of a physician [2]. Direct contact with skin can cause damage, and solid iodine crystals should be handled with care. [69][71], These sources ensure that Chile and Japan are the largest producers of iodine today. For these reasons, the values for the foods listed in Table 2 are approximate but can be used as a guide for estimating iodine intakes. These intakes meet or exceed the EAR for all groups. The impact of common micronutrient deficiencies on iodine and thyroid metabolism: the evidence from human studies. Total diet study nutritional elements, 1982-1989. World Health Organization. View abstract. The following groups are among those most likely to have inadequate iodine status. Taking potassium iodide with ACE inhibitors can increase the risk of hyperkalemia (elevated blood levels of potassium) [81]. Int J Vitam Nutr Res. Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors The incidence of goiter peaks in adolescence and is more common in girls than boys. Iodine is a trace element that is naturally present in some foods, is added to some types of salt, and is available as a dietary supplement. Specialty salts, such as sea salt, kosher salt, Himalayan salt, and fleur de sel, are not usually iodized. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. Why do people take iodine? [, Abt E, Spungen J, Pouillot R, Gamalo-Siebers M, Wirtz M. Update on dietary intake of perchlorate and iodine from U.S. food and drug administration's total diet study: 2008-2012. In 2009, a nationwide study was conducted to measure iodine status 14-15 year old schoolgirls – over 700 girls were included in the study. Acute poisoning symptoms include burning of the mouth, throat, and stomach; fever; abdominal pain; nausea; vomiting; diarrhea; weak pulse; and coma [2]. [113] Parenteral use of iodine-based contrast agents (see above) can cause reactions ranging from a mild rash to fatal anaphylaxis. The use of iodine-containing dietary supplements by pregnant and lactating women in the United States appears to be low compared to current recommendations. 2010 Oct;23(10):1095-1102. This variability affects the iodine content of meat and animal products because of its impact on the iodine content of foods that the animals consume [14]. In a double-blind study, researchers randomly assigned 56 women with fibrocystic breast disease to receive daily supplements of iodine (70 to 90 mcg I2/kg body weight) or placebo for 6 months [76]. Thyroid 2017;27:315-89. [, Abel MH, Brandlistuen RE, Caspersen IH, Aase H, Torheim LE, Meltzer HM, Brantsaeter AL. These are further processed by decarboxylation and deiodination to produce iodothyronamine (T1a) and thyronamine (T0a'). [, Rebagliato M, Murcia M, Espada M, Alvarez-Pedrerol M, Bolúmar F, Vioque J, Basterrechea M, Blarduni E, Ramón R, Guxens M, Foradada CM, Ballester F, Ibarluzea J, Sunyer J. Iodine intake and maternal thyroid function during pregnancy. The impact, if any, of this insufficient intake on fetal development is not known. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. [90] The toxicity derives from its oxidizing properties, through which it denaturates proteins (including enzymes). 2. Association of maternal iodine status with child IQ: A meta-analysis of individual participant data. Breast tissue has a high concentration of iodine, especially during pregnancy and lactation) [4,74]. [, Zimmermann MB, Galetti V. Iodine intake as a risk factor for thyroid cancer: A comprehensive review of animal and human studies.